Bibliography Style Bible Philippine

Religion in the Philippines is marked by a majority of people being adherents of the Christian faith.[1] At least 92% of the population is Christian; about 81% belong to the Roman Catholic Church while about 11% belong to Protestant, Restorationist and independent Catholic denominations, such as Iglesia Filipina Independiente, Iglesia ni Cristo, Seventh-day Adventist Church, United Church of Christ in the Philippines and Evangelicals.[1] Officially, the Philippines is a secular nation, with the Constitution guaranteeing separation of church and state, and requiring the government to respect all religious beliefs equally.

According to national religious surveys, about 5.6% of the population of the Philippines is Muslim, making Islam the second largest religion in the country. However, A 2012 estimate by the National Commission on Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) stated that there were 10.7 million Muslims, or approximately 11 percent of the total population.[2] Most Muslims live in parts of Mindanao, Palawan, and the Sulu Archipelago – an area known as Bangsamoro or the Moro region.[3] Some have migrated into urban and rural areas in different parts of the country. Most Muslim Filipinos practice Sunni Islam according to the Shafi'i school.[4] There are some Ahmadiyya Muslims in the country.[5]

Philippine traditional religions are still practiced by an estimated 2% of the population,[6][7] made up of many aboriginal and tribal groups. These religions are often syncretized with Christianity and Islam. Animism, folk religion, and shamanism remain present as undercurrents of mainstream religion, through the albularyo, the babaylan, and the manghihilot. Buddhism is practiced by 2% of the populations by the Japanese-Filipino community,[8][6][7][9] and together with Taoism and Chinese folk religion is also dominant in Chinese communities. There are smaller number of followers of Sikhs, Hinduism,[6][7][9] and Judaism, and Baha'i.[10] More than 10% of the population is non-religious, with the percentage of non-religious people overlapping with various faiths, as the vast majority of the non-religious select a religion in the Census for nominal purposes.[6][7][11]

According to the 2010 census, Evangelicals compromised 2% of the population, however 2010 surveys and data such Joshua Project and Operation World estimated the evangelical population to be around 11–13% of the population.[12] It is particularly strong among American and Korean communities, Northern Luzon especially in Cordillera Administrative Region, Southern Mindanao[13] and many other tribal groups in the Philippines.[14] Protestants both mainline and evangelical have gained significant annual growth rate up to 10% since 1910 to 2015.[15]


The Philippine Statistics Authority in October 2015 reported that 80.58% of the total Filipino population were Roman Catholics, 10.8% were Protestant and 5.57% were Muslims.[16]

Roman Catholic, including Catholic Charismatic80.5880.58




Evangelicals (PCEC)2.682.68


Iglesia Ni Cristo2.452.45


Non-Roman Catholic and Protestant (NCCP)1.161.16




Seventh-day Adventist0.740.74


Bible Baptist Church0.520.52


United Church of Christ in the Philippines0.490.49


Jehovah's Witnesses0.450.45


Other Protestants0.310.31


Church of Christ0.280.28


Jesus is Lord Church0.230.23


Tribal Religions0.190.19


United Pentecostal Church (Philippines) Inc.0.180.18


Other Baptists0.170.17


Philippine Independent Catholic Church0.150.15


Unión Espiritista Cristiana de Filipinas, Inc.0.150.15


Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints0.150.15


Association of Fundamental Baptist Churches in the Philippines0.120.12


Evangelical Christian Outreach Foundation0.100.1




Convention of the Philippine Baptist Church0.070.07


Crusaders of the Divine Church of Christ Inc.0.060.06




Lutheran Church of the Philippines0.050.05


Iglesia sa Dios Espiritu Santo Inc.0.050.05


Philippine Benevolent Missionaries Association0.050.05


Faith Tabernacle Church (Living Rock Ministries)0.040.04




Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[16]

Ancient indigenous beliefs or Dayawism[edit]

Main articles: Indigenous religious beliefs of the Philippines, Philippine mythology, Religion in pre-colonial Philippines, Anito, Gabâ, and Kulam

During pre-colonial times, a form of animism was widely practiced in the Philippines. Each of the ethno-linguistic tribe in the archipelago practices a distinct indigenous religion. Today, the Philippines is mostly Catholic and other forms of Christianity, and only a handful of the indigenous tribes continue to practice the old traditions. These are a collection of beliefs and cultural mores anchored more or less in the idea that the world is inhabited by spirits and supernatural entities, both good and bad, and that respect be accorded to them through nature worship. These spirits all around nature are known as "diwatas", showing cultural relationship with Hinduism (Devatas). Currently, there are 135 ethno-linguistic tribes in the Philippines according to the Komisyon ng Wikang Filipino. Less than half of which still practice indigenous religions which have been used prior to Spanish colonialism.

Some worship specific deities, such as the Tagalog supreme deity, Bathala, and his children Adlaw, Mayari, and Tala, or the Visayan deity Kan-Laon. Others practice Ancestor worship (anitos).[citation needed] Variations of animistic practices occur in different ethnic groups. Magic, chants and prayers are often key features. Its practitioners were highly respected (and some feared) in the community, as they were healers, midwives (hilot), shamans, witches and warlocks (mangkukulam), priests/priestesses (babaylan/katalonan), tribal historians and wizened elders that provided the spiritual and traditional life of the community. In the Visayan regions, shamanistic and animistic beliefs in witchcraft (barang) and mythical creatures like aswang (vampires), duwende (dwarves), and bakonawa (a gigantic sea serpent), may exist in some indigenous peoples alongside more mainstream Christian and Islamic faiths.

Spanish missionaries during the 16th century arrived in the Philippines noted warrior priestesses leading tribal spiritual affairs. Many were condemned as paganheretics. Although suppressed, these matriarchal tendencies run deep in Filipino society and can still be seen in the strong leadership roles modern Filipino women are assuming in business, politics, academia, the arts and in religious institutions.

Nominally animists constitute about one percent of the population.[citation needed] But animism's influence pervade daily life and practice of the colonial religions that took root in the Philippines. Elements of folk belief melded with Christian and Islamic practices to give a unique perspective on these religions.

Just like the way Hinduism and Shintoism started, where they began as a collection of different indigenous belief systems from different ethnic groups, the indigenous belief systems of the Philippines are sometimes referred to as Dayawism. The term itself came from the word, 'dayaw', which is an indigenous word found in all indigenous languages in the country. The term means to give praise, to be proud of oneself and the nation the self represents, enhancements or improvements, or festivity and pride, depending on the language. Other terms used for the collection of Philippine indigenous religions are Anitism and Bathalism, although the two terms are Tagalog-centrist in terminology.[17][18][19][20]

Preserving Dayawism Through the Paiwan Model[edit]

Due to the influx of Christianity, Islam, and other world religions in traditional communities, the indigenous practices, rituals, and spiritual performances and knowledge of indigenous Filipinos are fast disappearing. Cultural workers in the country suggest the Paiwan Model, which was made by the Taiwanese government to preserve indigenous religions, to save the Philippines' own indigenous religions. The indigenous practices and shamanism of the Paiwan people of Taiwan was the fastest declining religion in the country. This prompted the Taiwanense government to preserve the religion and to push for the establishment of the Paiwan School of Shamanism where religious leaders teach their apprentices the native religion so that it will never be lost. It became an effective medium in preserving, and even uplifting the Paiwan people's indigenous religion.

In the Philippines, shamanism is referred as dayawism, meaning 'gallant religions that give thanks to all living and non-living things'. As of 2018, there is no established school of dayawism in the Philippines, making the hundreds of indigenous religions in the country in great peril from extinction due to the influx of colonial-era religions. Each indigenous religion in the Philippines is distinct from each other, possessing unique epics, pantheons, belief systems, and other intangible heritage pertaining to religious beliefs. Due to this immense diversity in indigenous religions, a singular school of dayawism is not feasible. Rather, hundreds of schools of dayawism pertaining to an ethno-linguistic tribe is a better supplement to the current religious landscape in the Philippines.[21]

Bahá'í Faith[edit]

Main article: Bahá'í Faith in the Philippines

The Bahá'í Faith in the Philippines started in 1921 with the first Bahá'í first visiting the Philippines that year,[22] and by 1944 a Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly was established.[23] In the early 1960s, during a period of accelerated growth, the community grew from 200 in 1960 to 1000 by 1962 and 2000 by 1963. In 1964 the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the Philippines was elected and by 1980 there were 64,000 Bahá'ís and 45 local assemblies.[24] The Bahá'ís have been active in multi/inter-faith developments. The 2005 World Christian Encyclopedia estimates the Bahá'í population of the Philippines at about 247,500.[25]


Main article: Buddhism in the Philippines

No written record exists about the early Buddhism in the Philippines. However, archaeological discoveries and the few scant references in the other nations' historical records can tell about the existence of Buddhism from the 9th century onward in the islands. These records mention the independent states that comprise the Philippines and which show that they were not united as one country in the early days. Archaeological finds include Buddhist artifacts. The style are of Vajrayana influence.[citation needed]

Loanwords with Buddhist context appear in languages of the Philippines.[26][27] Archaeological finds include Buddhist artifacts.[28][29] The style are of Vajrayana influence.[30][31] The Philippines's early states must have become the tributary states of the powerful Buddhist Srivijaya empire that controlled the trade and its sea routes from the 6th century to the 13th century in Southeast Asia. The states’s trade contacts with the empire long before or in the 9th century must have served as the conduit for introducing Vajrayana Buddhism to the islands.

Both Srivijaya empire in Sumatra and Majapahit empire in Java were unknown in history until 1918 when the Ecole Francaise d'Extreme Orient's George Coedes postulated their existence because they had been mentioned in the records of the Chinese Tang and Sung imperial dynasties. Ji Ying, a Chinese monk and scholar, stayed in Sumatra from 687 to 689 on his way to India. He wrote on the Srivijaya's splendour, "Buddhism was flourishing throughout the islands of Southeast Asia. Many of the kings and the chieftains in the islands in the southern seas admire and believe in Buddhism, and their hearts are set on accumulating good action."

Both empires replaced their early Theravada Buddhist religion with Vajrayana Buddhism in the 7th century.[32]

Archaeological evidence[edit]

The Philippines’s archaeological finds include a few of Buddhist artifacts, most of them dated to the 9th century. The artifacts reflect the iconography of the Srivijaya empire’s Vajrayana Buddhism and its influences on the Philippines’s early states. The artifacts’s distinct features point to their production in the islands and they hint at the artisans’s or goldsmiths’s knowledge of the Buddhist culture and the Buddhist literature because the artisans have made these unique works of Buddhist art. The artifacts imply also the presence of the Buddhist believers in the places where these artifacts turned up. These places extended from the Agusan-Surigao area in Mindanao island to Cebu, Palawan, and Luzon islands. Hence, Vajrayana Buddhism must have spread far and wide throughout the archipelago. And Vajrayana Buddhism must have become the religion of the majority of the inhabitants in the islands.

In 1225, China's Zhao Rugua, a superintendent of maritime trade in Fukien province wrote the book entitled Zhu Fan Zhi (Chinese: 諸番志; literally: ""Account of the Various Barbarians"") in which he described trade with a country called Ma-i in the island of Mindoro in Luzon,(pronounced "Ma-yi") which was a prehispanic Philippine state. In it he said:

The country of Mai is to the north of Borneo. The natives live in large villages on the opposite banks of a stream and cover themselves with a cloth like a sheet or hide their bodies with a loin cloth. There are metal images of Buddhas of unknown origin scattered about in the tangled wilds.


"The gentleness of Tagalog customs that the first Spaniards found, very lfferent from those of other provinces of the same race and in Luzon itself, can very well be the effect of Buddhism "There are copper Buddha's" images.


The gold statue of the deity Tara is the most significant Buddhist artifact. In the Vajrayana Buddhist tradition, Tara symbolizes the Absolute in its emptiness as the wisdom heart’s essence that finds its expression through love and through compassion. The Vajrayana tradition also tells about the outpouring of the human heart’s compassion that manifests Tara and about the fascinating story of the Bodhisattva of Compassion shedding a tear out of pity for the suffering of all sentient beings when he hears their cries. The tear created a lake where a lotus flower emerges. It bears Tara who relieves their sorrow and their pain.

The Golden Tara was discovered in 1918 in Esperanza, Agusan and it has been kept in the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Illinois since the 1920s. Henry Otley Beyer, the Philippines’s pioneer anthropologist-archaeologist, and some experts have agreed on its identity and have dated it to belong within 900-950 CE, which covers the Sailendra period of the Srivijaya empire. They can not place, however, the Golden Tara’s provenance because it has distinct features.

In the archipelago that was to become the Philippines, the statues of the Hindu gods were hidden to prevent their destruction by a religion which destroyed all cult images. One statue, a "Golden Tara", a 4-pound gold statue of a Hindu-Malayan goddess, was found in Mindanao in 1917. The statue, denoted the Agusan Image, is now in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. The image is that of a Hindu-Malayan female deity, seated cross-legged. It is made of "twenty-one carat gold and weighs nearly four pounds." It has a richly ornamented headdress and many ornaments in the arms and other parts of the body. Scholars date it to the late 13th or early 14th century. It was made by local artists, perhaps copying from an imported Javanese model. The gold that was used was from this area, since Javanese miners were known to have been engaged in gold mining in Butuan at this time.

The existence of these gold mines, this artefact and the presence of "foreigners" proves the existence of some foreign trade, gold as element in the barter economy, and of cultural and social contact between the natives and "foreigners." As previously stated, this statue is not in The Philippines. Louise Adriana Wood (whose husband, Leonard Wood, was military-governor of the Moro Province in 1903-1906 and governor general in 1921-1927) raised funds for its purchase by the Chicago Museum of Natural History. It is now on display in that museum's Gold Room.

According to Prof. Beyer, considered the "Father of Philippine Anthropology and Archaeology", a woman in 1917 found it on the left bank of the Wawa River near Esperanza, Agusan, projecting from the silt in a ravine after a storm and flood. From her hands it passed into those of Bias Baklagon, a local government official. Shortly after, ownership passed to the Agusan Coconut Company, to whom Baklagon owed a considerable debt. Mrs. Wood bought it from the coconut company.

A golden statuette of the Hindu-Buddhist goddess Kinnara found in an archeological dig in Esperanza, Agusan del Sur. The Philippines's archaeological finds include many ancient gold artifacts. Most of them have been dated to belong to the 9th century iconography of the Srivijaya empire. The artifacts’s distinct features point to their production in the islands. It is probable that they were made locally because archaeologist Peter Bellwood discovered the existence of an ancient goldsmith’s shop that made the 20-centuries-old lingling-o, or omega-shaped gold ornaments in Batanes.[35] Archaeological finds include Buddhist artifacts.[28][29] The style are of Vajrayana influence.[30][31]

The other finds are the garuda, the mythical bird that has been common to Buddhism and Hinduism, and several Padmapani images. Padmapani has been also known as Avalokitesvara, the enlightened being or Bodhisattva of Compassion.[36]

Surviving Buddhist images and sculptures are primarily found in and at Tabon Cave.[37] Recent research conducted by Philip Maise has included the discovery of giant sculptures, has also discovered what he believes to be cave paintings within the burial chambers in the caves depicting the Journey to the West.[38]

Many Filipino customs have strong Buddhist influences. Estimates of the Buddhist population of the Philippines is around 2%.[8]Buddhism in the Philippines is growing fast, mainly because of increasing immigration to the country. Buddhism is largely confined to the Filipino Chinese, Chinese, Japanese, Thai, and Vietnamese communities though local adherents are on the rise.[citation needed] There are temples in Manila, Davao, and Cebu, and other places. Several schools of Buddhism are present in the Philippines – Mahayana, Vajrayana, Theravada, as well as groups such as Soka Gakkai International.[39]


Christianity arrived in the Philippines with the landing of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521. In the late 16th century, the archipelago was claimed for Spain and named it after its king. Missionary activity during the country's colonial rule by Spain and the United States led the transformation of the Philippines into the first and then, along with East Timor, one of two predominantly Catholic nations in East Asia, with approximately 92.5% of the population belonging to the Christian faith.[6][40]

Roman Catholicism[edit]

Main article: Catholic Church in the Philippines

Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion and the largest Christian denomination, with estimates of approximately 87% of the population belonging to this faith in the Philippines.[6] The country has a significant Spanish Catholic tradition, and Spanish style Catholicism is embedded in the culture, which was acquired from priests or friars.

The Catholic Church has great influence on Philippine society and politics. One typical event is the role of the Catholic hierarchy during the bloodless People Power Revolution of 1986. Then-Archbishop of Manila and de facto Primate of the Philippines, Jaime Cardinal Sin appealed to the public via radio to congregate along Epifanio de los Santos Avenue in support of rebel forces. Some seven million people responded to the call between 22–25 February, and the non-violent protests successfully forced PresidentFerdinand E. Marcos out of power and into exile in Hawaii.

Several Catholic holidays are culturally important as family occasions, and are observed in the civil calendar. Chief among these are Christmas, which includes celebrations of the civil New Year, and the more solemn Holy Week, which may occur in March or April. Every November, Filipino families celebrate All Saints' Day and All Souls' Day as a single holiday in honour of the saints and the dead, visiting and cleaning ancestral graves, offering prayers, and feasting.

Papal visits[edit]

  • Pope Paul VI was the target of an assassination attempt at Manila International Airport in the Philippines in 1970. The assailant, a BolivianSurrealist painter named Benjamín Mendoza y Amor Flores, lunged toward Pope Paul with a kris, but was subdued.
  • Pope John Paul II visited the country twice, 1981 and 1995. The final Mass of the event was recorded to have been attended by 4 million people, and was at the time the largest papal crowd in history.
  • Pope Benedict XVI declined the invitation of Cardinal Gaudencio Rosales and CBCP President Ángel Lagdameo to visit because of a hectic schedule.
  • Pope Francis visited the country in January 2015, and the concluding Mass at the Quirino Grandstand had almost 6 million attendees, breaking the record at Pope John Paul's Mass at the same site twenty years prior.

Iglesia ni Cristo[edit]

Main article: Iglesia ni Cristo

Iglesia ni Cristo (English: Church of Christ; Spanish: Iglesia de Cristo) is the largest entirely indigenous-initiated religious organisation in the Philippines comprising roughly 2% of religious affiliation in the Philippines.[41][42][43][44][45]Felix Y. Manalo officially registered the church with the Philippine Government on July 27, 1914[46] and because of this, most publications refer to him as the founder of the church. Felix Manalo claimed that he was restoring the church of Christ that was lost for 2,000 years. He died on April 12, 1963, aged 76.

The Iglesia ni Cristo is known for its large evangelical missions. The largest of which was the Grand Evangelical Mission (GEM) which also occurred simultaneously on 19 sites across the country. In Manila site alone, more than 600,000 people attended the event.[47] Other programs includes the Lingap sa Mamamayan (Aid to Humanity),[48] The Kabayan Ko Kapatid Ko (My Countrymen, My Brethren) and various resettlement projects for affected individuals.[49]

The primary purpose of the Church is to worship the almighty God based on his teachings as taught by Jesus Christ and as recorded in the bible. The church’s major activities include worship service, missionary works, edification. According to the March 2012 issue of PASUGO Magazine (p. 24), the Demographics of the Iglesia ni Cristo then was composed of 112 countries and 7 territories comprising 110 races.

Jesus Miracle Crusade International Ministry[edit]

Main article: Jesus Miracle Crusade

The Jesus Miracle Crusade International Ministry (JMCIM) is an apostolic Pentecostal religious group from the Philippines which believes in the of the gospel of Jesus Christ with signs, wonders, miracles and faith in God for healing. JMCIM was founded by evangelist Wilde E. Almeda on February 14, 1975.

Members Church of God International[edit]

Main article: Members Church of God International

Members Church of God International (Filipino: Mga Kasapi Iglesia ng Dios Internasyonal) is a religious organization popularly known through its television program, Ang Dating Daan (Tagalog for "The Old Path").

The church is known for their "Bible Expositions", where guests and members are given a chance to ask any biblical question to the Overall Servant of the church, Eliseo Soriano directly from the Bible. He and his co-servants expose teachings of asked religions which are not biblical and expands more knowledge about some misunderstood verses by using old manuscripts and reliable bible translations. Besides general preaching, they also established charity works. Among these humanitarian services are the charity homes for the senior citizens and orphaned children and teenagers; transient homes; medical missions; full college scholarship; start-up capital for livelihood projects; vocational trainings for the differently-abled; free legal assistance; free bus, jeepney, and train rides for commuters and senior citizens, and; free Bible for everyone. In its effort to save lives, MCGI is now one of the major blood donor in the Philippines, as acknowledged by the Philippine National Red Cross.[50]

Most Holy Church of God in Christ Jesus[edit]

Main article: Most Holy Church of God in Christ Jesus

The Most Holy Church of God in Christ Jesus (Filipino: Kabanalbanalang Iglesia ng Dios kay Kristo Hesus),[51][52] is an independent Christian denomination officially registered in the Philippines by Teofilo D. Ora in May 1922. The Church claims to restore the visible Church founded in Jerusalem by Christ Jesus. It has spread to areas including California, USA; Calgary, Canada, Dubai, UAE and other Asian countries. The Church will be celebrating its centennial anniversary in May 2022.

The church was founded by Bishop Teofilo D. Ora in 1922. He, along with Avelino Santiago and Nicolas Perez, split off from the Iglesia ni Cristo (Church of Christ) in 1922. They initially called their church Iglesia Verdadera de Cristo Hesus (True Church of Christ Jesus). However, following a religious doctrine controversy, Nicolas Perez split off from the group and registered an offshoot called Iglesia ng Dios kay Kristo Hesus, Haligi at Suhay ng Katotohanan (Church of God in Christ Jesus, the Pillar and Support of the Truth). Teofilo D. Ora was bishop until his death in 1969. He was officially succeeded by Bishop Salvador C. Payawal who led the church until 1989. Subsequent bishops were Bishop Gamaliel T. Payawal (1989 to 2003) and Bishop Isagani N. Capistrano (2003–present). It was during Gamaliel Payawal's tenure when the church was renamed as Most Holy Church of God in Christ Jesus.

Philippine Independent Church[edit]

Main article: Philippine Independent Church

The Philippine Independent Church (officially Spanish: Iglesia Filipina Independiente, IFI; colloquially known as the Aglipayan Church) is an independent Christian denomination in the form of a national church in the Philippines. Its schism from the Catholic Church was proclaimed in 1902 by the members of the Unión Obrera Democrática Filipina due to the alleged mistreatment of Filipinos by Spanish priests and the execution of nationalist José Rizal under Spanish colonial rule.

Isabelo de los Reyes was one of the initiators of the separation, and suggested that former Catholic priest Gregorio Aglipay be the head of the church. It is also known as the Aglipayan Church after its first Obispo Maximo, Gregorio Aglipay.

Commonly shared beliefs in the Aglipayan Church are the rejection of the Apostolic Succession solely to the Petrine Papacy, the acceptance of priestly ordination of women, the free option of clerical celibacy, the tolerance to join Freemasonry groups, non-committal in belief regarding transubstantiation and Real Presence of the Eucharist, and the advocacy of contraception and same-sex civil rights among its members. Many saints canonised by Rome after the schism are also not officially recognised by the Aglipayan church and its members.

As of 2010[update], Aglipayans in the Philippines numbered about a million members, with most from the northern part of Luzon, especially in the Ilocos Region. Congregations are also found throughout the Philippine diaspora in North America, Europe, Middle East and Asia. The church is the second-largest single Christian denomination in the country after the Roman Catholic Church (some 80.2% of the population), comprising about 2.6% of the total population of the Philippines.[citation needed]

Apostolic Catholic Church[edit]

Main article: Apostolic Catholic Church (Philippines)

The Apostolic Catholic Church (ACC) is a catholic denomination founded in the 1980s in Hermosa, Bataan. It formally separated in the Roman Catholic Church in 1992 when Patriarch Dr. John Florentine Teruel registered it as a Protestant and Independent Catholic denomination. Today, it has more than 5 million members worldwide. The largest international congregations are in Japan, United States and Canada.


Main article: Philippine Orthodox Church

Orthodoxy has been continuously present in the Philippines for more than 200 years.[53] It is represented by two groups, by the Exarchate of the Philippines (a jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople governed by the Orthodox Metropolitanate of Hong Kong and Southeast Asia), and by the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Mission in the Philippines (a jurisdiction of the Antiochian Orthodox Church governed by the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia, New Zealand, and All Oceania). In 1999, it was asserted that there were about 560 Orthodox church members in the Philippines.[54]


Main article: Protestants in the Philippines

Protestantism arrived in the Philippines with the take-over of the islands by Americans at the turn of the 20th century. Nowadays, they comprise about 10%–15% of the population with an annual growth rate of 10% since 1910[55] and constitute the largest Christian grouping after Roman Catholicism. In 1898, Spain lost the Philippines to the United States. After a bitter fight for independence against its new occupiers, Filipinos surrendered and were again colonized. The arrival of Protestant American missionaries soon followed. Protestant church organizations established in the Philippines during the 20th century include the following:

Procession in Malaybalay for the indigenous Kaamulan Festival
Buddhist expansion throughout Asia.
San Fernando Metropolitan Cathedral in Pampanga
Iglesia ni Cristo's central temple in Quezon City
The Philippine Arena was constructed by the Iglesia ni Cristo for its Centennial Anniversary and large gatherings.

In this article, I will show you how to cite books using the American Psychological Association (APA) citation system. The APA style has two inseparable components: in-text citation and reference list. In-text citation, by its name, is included within the body of a document. On the other hand, the reference list is found at the end of the document with the complete information about the source. The in-text citation is meant to direct the readers to the right source in the reference list.

Table of Content

Requirements to Create a Citation

To start with, I have here a list of basic information that you need to look for in citing a book and the location of each element.

  1. Author (book cover and title page)
  2. Year of Publication (title page or on the page directly behind it)
  3. Title (cover and title page)
  4. Place of Publication (title page)
  5. Publishing Entity (title page or on the page directly behind it)

Now that you are familiar with the elements you have to include in the reference, we will continue with the APA book citation format. Let’s begin with citing the authors in both in-text citation and reference list.

Citing the Author

One Author

In-text citation Reference list
Last nameChitty*Write only the last name without the initials for all in-text citations. Last name, A. A. Chitty, D.

Multiple Authors

Two to Seven Authors
In-text citation Reference list
Last Name A & Last name B Calfee & Valencia*Use ampersand (&) instead of “and.” You can include up to five names, but in the next citations just use the first author’s name followed by et al.Last name, A. A., & Last name, B. B. Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R.*The names of the author should be listed in the same order as it is written in the source. Use ampersand (&) instead of “and.”


More than Seven Authors
In-text citation Reference list
Last name A et al.Miller et al.*Only include the first author’s last name followed by et al.Last name, A. A., Last name, B. B., Last name, C. C., Last name, D. D., Last name, E. E., Last name, F. F., . . . Last name, G. G.Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H.*Only seven authors can be included in the reference list. After the name of the sixth author, write three ellipsis points followed by the last author’s name.


Corporate Author
In-text citation Reference list
Name of the organization or groupNational Institute of Mental Health(same as in-text)


In-Text Citation

  • The in-text citation is written inside a parenthesis usually with the last name of the author and year of publication, separated by a comma.

Example: (Simon, 1945)

  • If the name of the author is included in the text, write only the year inside the parenthesis.

Example: Simon (1945) posited that

  • In quoting a part of a work, include the name of the author, year, and page number.


According to Jones (1998), “Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p. 199).

Jones (1998) found “students often had difficulty using APA style” (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

She stated, “Students often had difficulty using APA style” (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.


Reference List

  • For multiple works by the same author, the reference should be listed from the earliest to the most recent.


Upenieks, V. (2003).

Upenieks, V. (2005).



  • Italicize the title of books.


The biology of aging: Observations and principles



Publication details
  • U.S. states or territories are abbreviated in the reference list.


New York, NY


  • The city and country name is included for publications outside of the U.S.


Manila, Philippines


  • There is no need to write Publishers, Company or Inc. with the name of the publisher.





  • Author. (Year). Title of Book (edition if not first). Place of Publication: Publisher.


Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991).APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.



Citation Format by Book Type

Edited Book

Basic Format: Author. (Year). Title of Book. Editor. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Plath, S. (2000).The unabridged journals.K. V. Kukil (Ed.). New York, NY: Anchor.

Note: The editor’s name is written with the initials first followed by the last name and (Ed.).


Edited Book without Author

Basic Format: Editor. (Year). Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Miller, J., & Smith, T. (Eds.). (1996). Cape Cod stories: Tales from Cape Cod, Nantucket, and Martha’s Vineyard. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books.


Translated Book

Basic Format: Author. (Year). Title of Book. (Translators). Place of Publication: Publisher. (Original Publication)

Example: Laplace, P. S. (1951).A philosophical essay on probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814)

Note: Unlike the author’s name, the names of the translators are listed with the initials first followed by the last name and the abbreviated word Trans.


Multivolume Work

Basic Format: Editor. (Year). Title of Book (Volume). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Mills, L. (1996).Architecture of the Old South(Vols. 1-2). Savannah, GA: Beehive Foundation.


Reference Book

Basic Format: Author. (Year). Entry heading or title. In Editor’s name. Title of Book (Edition, volume, p. or pp. pages). Place of publication: Publisher.


Eschatology. (1982). In Webster’s new world dictionary of the American language(2nd ed., p. 383). New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Tavris, C. (1989). Queen bee syndrome. In B. Yark and G. Himmel (Eds.), Women’s encyclopedia (Vol. 1, p. 307). New York, NY: Greenward.

Note: Include only the information available in the source. Some reference books may not have the name of the author and editor as well as the volume number.


Section of a Book

Basic Format: Author of the section. (Year). Title of the section. In Authors or Editors, Title of Book (pp. section pages). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example: Jeffrey, I. (1988). Introduction. In B. Savelev,Secret city: photographs from the USSR(pp. 8-12). New York, NY: Thames and Hudson.

Note: The name of the author or editor of the book is written with the initials first before the last name. Section pages are enclosed in a parenthesis with the abbreviation pp.


Online Book

Basic Format: Author. (Year). Title of Book. Retrieved from or doi


Drum, D., & Zierenberg, T. (2006). The type 2 diabetes sourcebook (3rd ed.).

Prairie oysters. (2002). In Rawson’s dictionary of euphemisms and otherdoubletalk. Retrieved from

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