understanding the freshwater issues
2014 - Video productions
Fluvial land forms can only be classified as either erosional or depositional. Critically examine this statement. (10)
You are going to write this up as a group effort (use the framework sheet below)
Watch the five videos above. Making notes on the processes of formation, use at least four examples of the features to attempt to answer the question above. Don't forget to use the IB Essay Planning Tool.
Human Modifications - toulouse
Task 1 - Turn to page 90 of Waugh - Integrated Approach. Use the A3 outline sheet to annotate on the features of a river with 1. Free Reign and 2. that has been corseted. Add suitable titles to your work.
Task 2: Evaluate the costs and benefits of alternative stream management strategies (PowerPoint).
Case Study Toulouse
Click here for the worksheetto fill in using Toulouse as the case study example (Note: Website is in French and will require a good understanding of the language to complete). Click here to access the website in Toulouse.
You will be given two plans of Toulouse town centre and must come up with a display to show residents of Toulouse what is being done to protect them from a catastrophic flood event as seen in the 1875.
History of Flooding in Toulouse
Create a timeline of events using this page showing the historical flooding events in Toulouse. Perhaps create a living graph to show the flood events linking the chart with some photos. You could also locate historical photos of the events on the map of Toulouse.
Mapping the Risk to Toulouse - Levees
i. Using this interactive plan, annotate on all the levées protecting the city and inhabitants. Here is your photo sheet.
Mapping the risk to Toulouse - Vannes et Pompes (valves & pumps)
ii. Using this information page as well as the animation, locate the pumping station in Sept Derniers on the map and take two sreen shots of the system before writing a brief summary of how the system works and what it prevents from happening.
Mapping the risk to Toulouse - Les portes étanches (Flood Gates)
iii. Using this information page, locate Porte de Viguerie and annotate onto the map the protection method as well as a photo. Do the same for Porte de Garonnette and locate
**Optional Extra** - Here is the sheetfor the IB Toulouse boat trip to see in practice what we have been learning about.
Case Study Colarado USA - Option 2
Turn to page 93-97 in Integrated Approach and use the Colarado basin as your focus to answer the IB style question below.
Case Study Thailand - Option 3
Alternative Study - Floodplain management in Thailand - BBC Article
With reference to one named area of floodplain, evaluate the costs and benefits of at least three different stream management strategies. (10)
Groundwater Management - Australia
Starter - Under the title and quote above, produce a sketch map of Australia with the extent of the Artesian Basin highlighted on top.
Task 1 - Explain the functioning and management of artesian basinsand aquifers, distinguishing between natural and artificial recharge.
Screen Shots of video for worksheet
Videos is embedded above.
Task 2 - Turn to page 8 - Rivers and Water Management - Garrrett Nagle. Read the section entitled Groundwater.
a - Outline what is meant by the phreatic zone and ouline the different layers within.
b - Groundwater accounts for what % of freshwater on earth?
c - Why is some groundwater considered to be a non renewable resource?
d - Outline the key features of an aquifer
e - Outline the key ways in which groundwater can be recharged.
f - Conduct some research to find a case study example of artificial recharge (irrigation, reservoirs etc)
g - How can groundwater be lost?
h - Make a sketch of diagram b on page 10 - Groundwater in Semi Arid regions. This links in to your case study on the Great Artesian Basin in Australia.
Human Uses - Great Artesian Basin
Wetlands as a Water Resource
Irrigation & Agriculture
You will be completing a four part case study looking at the different effects of agriculture and irrigation on water quality.
Each of the parts should take you around 15-20 minutes to complete and there is an exam question at the end to plan and produce.
Dams & Reservoirs
Objective: Analyse the hydrological changes resulting from the construction of dams and reservoirs. Examine the costs and benefits of dams and reservoirs as part of multi-purpose schemes.
Complete tasks 1 & 2 on the work sheet above right.
Task 1 - Background
Read Geofile 410 September 2001 and make notes on the generic social, economic, environmental, political and issues (SEEP) surrounding dam construction.
Task 2 - Environmental Impacts
a. Click to read this BBC Futures article - Outline the environmental impacts of dams to affected areas.
b. Then read GeoFile Online River management schemes – blessing or curse? (Ed 399, April 2001)
. Scroll to page 2 and pay particular attention to 'The Drawbacks of Large Schemes'. Outline the hydrological changes resulting from dam construction
c. Outline what has been done in the Grand Canyon by reading and highlighting this 2012 article from the Daily Mail.
Task 3 - Major Case Study
China & Three Gorge Dam Project.
You should read this article from October 2013 to set the scene about the situation in China. Make notes on the shortage of water and the following quote:
China has 20% of the world’s population but only 7% of its fresh water
Use this SEEP framework sheet to record Three Gorges Dam information as you read it.
a. Read the Geo Fact Sheet 114 - Three Gorges Dam
b. Read this recent storyabout the human impact of the scheme in China from BBC news and study this infographic
c. Watch the YouTube videos to the right.
d. Complete the essay question:
Examine the costs (SEEP) and benefits (SEEP) of dams and reservoirs as part of multi-purpose schemes using a case study location that you have studied. (10)
Level 6 & 7 Additional Reading
Hydrological Effect of Dams - Resource 3 Comprehensive Word Document (Excerpted from Silenced Rivers: The Ecology and Politics of Large Dams by Patrick McCully)
Human Mismanagement Case Study - The Val di Stava Dam collapse occurred on July 19, 1985, when two tailings dams above the village of Stava, near Tesero, northern Italy, failed. It resulted in one of Italy's worst disasters, killing 268 people, destroying 63 buildings and demolishing eight bridges.
Objective: To explain stream channel processes and explain the resultant land forms found on floodplains.
Quick Game? Click here and again?Click here ... one last challenge?Click here
Starter - Study the geographyalltheway.com slideshare to the right and take notes on the four different types of river erosion on page 4 as well as the four types of transportation on page 5.
You are going to split into teams of five. Each team will represent one of the following:
Team 1. V-Shaped Valleys
Team 2 - Waterfalls
Team 3. Floodplains, levées,
Team 4 -Deltas
Team 5. Meanders, oxbow lakes & point bars
Task 1 - You are going to create a three strip cartoon about your allocated features under the headings above.
Excellent source of information here
Task 3 - Getting the water out. Make some revision notes based on the video to the right. Include details of how water has been traditionally extracted from deep under the surface.
Task 4 - Practical human uses of the GAB. Watch the video below to make notes of how rural communities use the GAB from 17.40 to 23.00.
Task 5 - Over extraction and the GAB - Go back and watch the video in task 4 from 23.00 to 32.00 and make notes on the impacts of over extraction and what is being done to prevent it.
Task 1 - Read over the three articles underneath and complete two case studies on the environmental impacts of groundwater abstraction in different global locations. Examine both the causes and effects that this abstraction has on areas and communities that are affected.
Resource 1 - Guardian Newspaper Article - Asparagus and Groundwater shortages
Resource 2 - Groundwater extraction in Las Vegas
Resource 3 - Lake Naivasha - Kenya - PDF - Withering under the pressure of international flower vendors
Task 2 - Africa - The full extent of groundwater supplies.
Starter: Watch the first video to the right hand side.
a. Read the breaking news from April 2012 - Huge Groundwater supply found beneath Africa. BBC news article here & study the graphic to the right (click to enlarge).
a. What implications could this have on health and well-being in Sub Saharan Africa? Think of access to freshwater, water-borne diseases, agriculture.
b. Pay particular attention to those areas where there is the highest productivity.
c. Use the CIA World Factbook for key data for those countries.
d. Include a copy of the graphic to the right in your mini report.
Extra Research - Watch the last video to the right and take notes on effects of Groundwater extraction on the environment.
IB Paper 2 - Exam Question - Referring to at least one example, examine the environmental effects of groundwater abstraction. [10 Marks]
Don't forget to use the essay planning tool
Africa: Further information can be found here.
Objective: Describe the role of wetlands as a water resource.
Click here to be taken to an explanation of how wetlands are utilized as a water resource.
Task 1 - Using this worksheet, create some revision notes outlining the major values and a brief explanation of each.
Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of the
management strategiesthat have been adopted in Florida USA.
Task 2 - Using the Google Map below, write an accurate description of the site (actual location) and situation (in relation to what is around it) of the Kissimmee Wetlands.
Restoration since 1992
Task 5 - Watch the video to the right (don't worry if you can't understand the old guy at the beginning - he's not too important!) and take notes on the key areas of progress.
Task 6 - using the embedded PDF below, outline the major environmental developmentssince 1992 in the restoration of the Kissimmee River system.
Task 7 - Create a table to show the management methods used to return the system back to its original state.
Task 3 - Watch the (slightly military, fast paced!) video above and take notes.
Click here to access the associated PDF.
i. Use the hyperlink above to explain the background to the project.
ii. What happened to this natural system?
iii. Why was the system altered? … in response to what?
iv. How was it altered?
v. Outline the problems that this caused to the system
Part 1 - Salinization
Open this linkand read the information on Salinization. Summarise how the process happens and how it is linked to irrigation and agriculture. Briefly explain how its effects can be combated. Also embedded to the right.
Open this link. It explains the problems caused by Salinization in the Adelaide, SA. Read over the document but pay particular attention to ‘The stressed Murray-Darling River system’ and ‘What is water salinity’?
Create two spider diagrams that show 1. The causes of Salinization in the Murray Darling and 2. The effects
•PPM = Parts per million
A new series of films explores the links between land reform and economic activity in Zimbabwe, focusing on three commodities: tobacco, beef and horticulture.
The films are produced for the ‘Space, Markets and Employment in Agricultural Development’ (SMEAD) project by Pamela Ngwenya, supported by the field team. They are accompanied by an overview film.
Zimbabwe is one of three countries where the SMEAD project has undertaken case studies. The others are Malawi and South Africa.
Watch the films on YouTube (high resolution playlist)
Watch the films on YouTube (low resolution playlist)
Over the last couple of years the SMEAD project has looked at the linkages between agricultural production, employment and other economic activity and the spatial patterns of these interactions. Detailed case studies have explored the different growth pathways linked to agriculture, and how inclusive these are, asking who gains and who loses from agricultural commercialisation.
The study links to well-trodden debates about scale and agriculture, and the linkage and multiplier effects of different types of farming. Do big or small farms create more employment and economic growth, for whom and where? What spatial mix of farm sizes and markets make sense? Can local economic development flourish in an era of globalisation?
The early indications from the SMEAD studies suggest an interesting story, especially for Zimbabwe. This suggests a focus on local economic development, capitalising on and amplifying the linkages already created by entrepreneurial farmers who have benefited from land reform. This will mean a major rethink of rural development policy and planning, but the benefits could be significant if the cases highlighted in these films are anything to go by.
Read more: Making markets: local economic development following land reform (Zimbabweland blog)
Watch this film on YouTube
The rebound of tobacco production in Zimbabwe is striking. From a low in the mid-2000s of only around 48 million kgs, the last season produced 216 million kgs, and exports have soared. For the coming season over 75,000 farmers have registered to sell.
How does tobacco production, spread across so many farmers, affect local economies? In the Mvurwi area in Mazowe district, you cannot escape the impacts of tobacco. The local economy includes companies providing inputs and transport; employment of labour; and farmers using their profits to start businesses and improving their homes and farms. Other local businesses benefit too. The downsides include health problems from tobacco curing, and the destruction of local forests for curing wood.
Read more: Tobacco: driving growth in local economies (Zimbabweland blog)
Watch this film on YouTube
Mr Mahove of Wondedzo extension A1 resettlement area and his wives appear on the video, shot in 2014. He is an example of a new farming entrepreneur, focusing on irrigated horticulture for local markets. He was a pioneer in the area, but many others are now following his example, making often significant money from selling vegetables.
Mr Mahove is one of a number of new irrigation entrepreneurs in the Wondedzo area of Masvingo district. Each has invested in pumps and pipes and are making good use of available water supplies. All have developed market networks linking to Masvingo town and beyond, as well as supplying the local area. They are also employing people for a range of tasks. But there are constraints to this form of production, notably competition for limited supplies of water, which are insufficiently regulated.
Read more: The new irrigation entrepreneurs: commerical horticulture in Masvingo (Zimbabweland blog)
Watch this film on YouTube
Beef in Masvingo
The final film in the ‘Making Markets’ series focuses on the beef sector in Masvingo. In farms that were once large-scale ranches, with high quality animals stocked at very low rates, now a very different cattle production system has emerged on the new resettlements. Here multi-purpose herds are being kept providing multiple functions – draft, transport, milk, manure – and also meat.
The beef market has radically changed, from one focused on high quality cuts and exports to the supply of a growing urban domestic market. New farmers are supplying beef via a range of private abbatoirs, butcheries, supermarkets and informal meat traders. The whole value chain has transformed in ways that has resulted in employment and more locally-based, inclusive growth.
Watch this film on YouTube
About the SMEAD project
The ‘Space, Markets and Employment in Agricultural Development’ (SMEAD) project is co-ordinated by the Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies based at UWC in Cape Town under supported by the UK ESRC and DFID growth research programme.
The project has also produced a documentary film, Cultivating Unemployment, looking at jobs and poverty in the rural economy in South Africa.
To receive updates from this project, sign up to the PLAAS mailing list, ticking the “Space, Markets&Employment in AgriDevelopment ” box.