Global 9HPeter Straubinger Period 2Throughout written history, vast changes in social, political, and economicestablishments have been sparked by extraordinary people or conditions. Often, thesechanges mark a turning point in the progress of civilization as new ideas are formed, newgovernments raised, or new discoveries put to use in the interest of progress. Whether these pivotal moments in history may be due to a single nonconforming person or a vast,radical multitude, each turning point has certain specific influences and outcomes whichshaped the world for innumerable years.On of history’s most major changes occurred in the 1500s, through the work of aman named Martin Luther. A devout German monk, Martin Luther eventually sparkedone of the most major religious reformations in history. However, while Martin Luther’sactions were the flame to the proverbial powder-keg, there were numerous influencesleading up to his actions. Since long before Luther’s time, many Catholic popes hadgrown increasingly concerned with financial and or political issues, as opposed tospiritual ones. Understandable, this undermined the faith of many in the Catholic church’sleadership. In addition to the declining religious conduct of the various popes, clergy of lower rank began to abuse their privileges, or outright ignore many of the church’steachings and requirements. Nationalism, too, was on the rise throughout Europe; as people became more and more concerned with the affairs of their countries rather thanthose of the church. The Popes began to lose their sway on Europe’s people. Lastly, theinvention of Gutenberg’s printing press allowed the spread of revolutionary andnonconformist ideals which would previously have been quashed by the Catholic church.
Presentation on theme: "Turning Points Thematic Essay. Turning Point: Protestant Reformation Description of Event: – A reform movement led by Martin Luther (a German Monk) –"— Presentation transcript:
1 Turning Points Thematic Essay
2 Turning Point: Protestant Reformation Description of Event: – A reform movement led by Martin Luther (a German Monk) – Attempt by Luther to reform the Catholic Church of corrupt practices. – Luther is Excommunicated and forms a separate sect of Christianity.
3 Events Leading Up to Event Church CORRUPTION – Dishonest priests, too wealthy INDULGENCES – Sold by the Church to make $$ (Johann Tetzel) 95 THESES – Luther writes 95 things he would like the church to reform…Spark of Reformation Luther supported by POOR, PRINCES AND MERCHANTS PRINTING PRESS – Spreads reformation ideas quickly around Europe
4 How it Changed History End of Religious Unity in Europe – (Catholics/Protestants) Religious Tension – Religious Wars (Ireland) Decreased Power of Pope Increased Power of Kings (King Henry-Eng) Catholic Counter Reformation: Council of Trent – Jesuits=Catholic Missionaries (Spread Christ-America) – Inquisition= Attempt to Rid Europe of Protestants
5 Turning Point: Discovery of Americas (AKA-Columbian Exchange/Exploration/Encounter) Description: – Columbus Discovers the Americas – 15 th Cent. Searching for All Water Route to India (Spice Trade) – Europeans quickly conquer Natives (Aztec/Inca) – Establish Columbian Exchange and Triangle Trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas
6 Events Leading up to TP Age of Exploration – New technology allows Europeans to Explore the World Superior Technology – Allows the Euros to easily conquer Natives (Conquistadors) Europeans desire Gold, God and Glory
7 How it Changed History Columbian Exchange: Global Transfer of Goods/Ideas b/w Europe and “New World” – New Foods (potato) to Europe Improves Diet – Disease (smallpox) to New World – Kills Millions Triangle Trade – Raw Materials to Europe from new World – Slaves to Americas from Africa (Middle Passage) – Guns/Finished Goods to Africa from Europe Mercantilism – Colony exists to benefit Mother Country (Raw Materials/Markets) Encomienda (Rigid Class Structure in New World) – Based on Birth/Blood, Provides Native/Slave Labor for Europeans – Similar to Caste System in India, Feudal System in Europe
8 Turning Point: Russian Revolution Description: Poor Russian Peasants lead a Revolution against Czarist Rule in Russia – (Autocracy) or Absolute Monarchy is overthrown by a violent revolution led by BOLSHEVIKS – V.I. Lenin(leader) demands “PEACE, LAND, BREAD” – Russia becomes Communist Soviet Union
9 Events Leading Up to TP GFMNP: Government of Russia Failed to Meet the Needs of the People in Russia. Czarist Rule – Leaders live in wealth, Everyone else in Poverty WWI – Disaster for Russia, Millions Die/Starve, Not Enough Weapons/Supplies, Stuck on “Eastern Front”
10 How it Changed History Russia Pulls out of WWI V.I. Lenin and Bolshevik Party Comes to Power Russia is broken up into SOVIETS Russia is forced into a civil war between nationalists and communists Stalin becomes leader of the COMMUNISTS Soviet Union becomes 1 st Communist Power Leads to Cold War
11 Turning Point: Industrial Revolution Description: An economic revolution in which Europe began a Factory System and Large Scale Manufacturing. – Begins in England: Capital, Stability, Harbors, Resources (Coal/Iron) – Capitalism
12 Events Leading Up to TP – Agricultural Revolution led to Surplus New fertilizers and tools – New Inventions: Flying Shuttle, Water Frame, Steam Engine – Commercial Revolution: Development of capitalist economic system, Joint Stock Companies – Mercantilism brings large quantities of raw materials into Europe
13 How it Changed History Positive Impacts – Worker Conditions Improve Factory Act of 1833 Child Labor Laws – Suffrage – Better Transportation – Social Mobility Increased – Increased Trade/Interaction/Cultural Diffusion Negative Impacts – Gap between rich and poor (CLASS TENSION) – Poor working conditions – SADLER REPORT – Pollution – Poverty – Conflicts between Nations LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNISM – A response to poor conditions experienced by the PROLETARIAT (Working Class) to overthrow the BOURGEOISIE (Owners of Means of Production)
14 Nationalist Leaders Leader: Mohandas Gandhi Nation: India Leader: Emperor Meiji Nation: Japan
15 Mohandas Gandhi/India Ideas AND Methods: Nationalism – Pride and love in one’s country Self Determination – Desire to be free of imperial rule, Rule your own nation. Civil Disobedience – Refusal to Obey Unjust Laws Non-Violent Protest – Desire to achieve goals without the use of violence Hunger Strike – Gandhi Fasts (Doesn’t Eat) to end violence between Hindus/Muslims Salt March – Gandhi leads followers on a March to Indian ocean to make Salt. Protest against British Taxes on Salt Homespun Movement – Gandhi encourages Indians to make their own clothing/textiles to avoid supporting British Industries.
16 Impact on their people and nation Gandhi Achieves Indian Independence from British Colonial Rule. India is partitioned into India for Hindus and Pakistan for Muslims. India struggles to overcome the negative aspects of Colonial Rule. Cash crop economy doesn’t meet the needs of the people – need for GREEN REVOLUTION.
17 Emperor Meiji/Japan Ideas and Methods: Modernization – The Desire to become modern and technologically advanced. Westernization – Process of become more like the Industrialized West (Western Europe) Imperialism – Process by which a stronger country takes over a weaker country. Industrialization – Process by which a country builds up industries and develops a factory system. -Creates transportation network -Reforms banking, government, social classes
18 Impact on the People and Nation Japan becomes a modern industrial nation Industrialization creates a need for Raw Materials Japanese Imperialism Japan invades Manchuria, Korea and China Advanced transportation and communication systems. Westernizes so they KEEP OUT THE WEST Imperialism (Military Aggression) gets Japan involved in WWII